Type 1 Diabetes, also known as Insulin Dependent Diabetes or Juvenile Diabetes
is a chronic condition in which the pancreas in the body produces little or no
insulin at all. Insulin is a hormone, which is needed to allow sugar or glucose to
enter the cells in order to produce energy.
Although Type 1 Diabetes usually appears during childhood or adolescence, it
can also develop in adults and despite many active researches are being carried
out by the scientist and doctors worldwide, there is no proper prevention or cure
for Type 1 Diabetes. Therefore its treatment is mainly focused on managing the
blood sugar level with insulin, proper diet and lifestyle to prevent the further
complications in the body.
Basic signs and symptoms of Type 1 Diabetes:
* Increased thirst
* Frequent urination
* Unintended weight loss
* Extreme hunger
* Blurred vision
* Bed-wetting in young ones who previously didn't wet the bed
* Fatigue and weakness
* Irritability and other mood changes.
Basic factors responsible for Type 1 Diabetes:
Family History: The chances of someone getting Type 1 Diabetes increases if the
parent or sibling is having the Type 1 Diabetes. The family history plays an
important role and should be considered with respect to diabetes.
Genetics: The presence of certain genes in the body indicates the increased risk of
developing Type 1 Diabetes.
Geography: It is observed that as one moves away from the equator the chances
of developing Type 1 Diabetes increases.
Age: Type 1 Diabetes can appear at any age but mostly it occurs in children and
therefore this type of Diabetes is also known as Juvenile Diabetes.
Ethnicity: Compared to others, certain ethnicities have a higher rate of Type 1
Diabetes. Americans have higher chances to get Type 1 Diabetes than Africans or
Other autoimmune conditions: Type 1 Diabetes is an autoimmune condition as it
turns the body’s immune system against itself. Other autoimmune conditions
include multiple sclerosis, and pernicious anemia and Graves’ disease .
Effect of Type 1 Diabetes on human body:
Heart & Cardiovascular Disorders: Diabetes is responsible for various
cardiovascular diseases. It includes coronary artery disease, stroke, chest pain
(angina), heart attack, atherosclerosis and high blood pressure.
Nerve Damage or Neuropathy Disorder: Excessive intake of sugar can damage the
walls of the tiny blood vessels i.e. nerve-nourishing capillaries especially in the
legs. This can lead to numbness, burning, tingling or pain that begins at the tips
of the toes or fingers and spreads upward. If the blood sugar level is poorly
controlled then it can result in lose of sense of feeling in the affected limbs. Type
1 Diabetes also affects the gastrointestinal tract leading the vomiting, diarrhea,
constipation and nausea. This can also lead to erectile dysfunction in the men.
Kidney Damage or Nephropathy Disorder: The main role of kidney is to filter the
waste from blood and Type 1 Diabetes can severely damage this filtering system.
If this system is damaged beyond healing than it can lead to kidney failure or
irreversible end-stage kidney disease.
Eye Damage: Type 1 Diabetes can damage the blood vessels of the retina
(diabetic retinopathy). This can lead to blindness. This can also lead to various
serious vision conditions like glaucoma and cataracts.
Foot Damage: Poor blood flow to the feet can increase the risk of various foot
complications. Even the smallest cut or blister can become serious infections and
may require tow, foot or leg amputation.
Skin & Mouth Conditions: Person with Type 1 Diabetes is more vulnerable to skin
& mouth infections including fungal and bacterial infections.
Pregnancy Complications: High blood sugar level can be very dangerous for both
the mother and the unborn baby. It can result in miscarriage, birth defects and
stillbirth. If the diabetes is not well controlled then it can increase the risk of
diabetic ketoacidosis, retinopathy or diabetic eye problem, preeclampsia and
even pregnancy-induced high blood pressure.
Living with T1D is a lifetime balancing act that requires constant attention in
order to avoid life-threatening hypoglycemia. It is very important to monitor the
blood sugar level either with finger pricks or a continuous glucose monitor and
therefore insulin doses must be carefully calculated accordingly. It is also very
important to manage the stress levels, food intake, illness and other additional
factors making life with diabetes worse. It is advisable to get regular checkups
with doctor about and get well-detailed diabetes self-management knowledge.
20 Microns Diabetes Center strives to promote the awareness about diabetes
across all the classes of the society. We believe that by educating people about
this life-threatening disease can help the society fight against diabetes.